Service Management

A service is a group of daemons configured together. See these chapters for details on individual services:

Service Status

To see the status of one of the services running in the Ceph cluster, do the following:

  1. Use the command line to print a list of services.

  2. Locate the service whose status you want to check.

  3. Print the status of the service.

The following command prints a list of services known to the orchestrator. To limit the output to services only on a specified host, use the optional --host parameter. To limit the output to services of only a particular type, use the optional --type parameter (mon, osd, mgr, mds, rgw):

ceph orch ls [--service_type type] [--service_name name] [--export] [--format f] [--refresh]

Discover the status of a particular service or daemon:

ceph orch ls --service_type type --service_name <name> [--refresh]

To export the service specifications knows to the orchestrator, run the following command.

ceph orch ls --export

The service specifications exported with this command will be exported as yaml and that yaml can be used with the ceph orch apply -i command.

For information about retrieving the specifications of single services (including examples of commands), see Retrieving the running Service Specification.

Daemon Status

A daemon is a systemd unit that is running and part of a service.

To see the status of a daemon, do the following:

  1. Print a list of all daemons known to the orchestrator.

  2. Query the status of the target daemon.

First, print a list of all daemons known to the orchestrator:

ceph orch ps [--hostname host] [--daemon_type type] [--service_name name] [--daemon_id id] [--format f] [--refresh]

Then query the status of a particular service instance (mon, osd, mds, rgw). For OSDs the id is the numeric OSD ID. For MDS services the id is the file system name:

ceph orch ps --daemon_type osd --daemon_id 0

Service Specification

A Service Specification is a data structure that is used to specify the deployment of services. Here is an example of a service specification in YAML:

service_type: rgw
    - host1
    - host2
    - host3
unmanaged: false
  # Additional service specific attributes.

In this example, the properties of this service specification are:

class ceph.deployment.service_spec.ServiceSpec(service_type, service_id=None, placement=None, count=None, config=None, unmanaged=False, preview_only=False, networks=None, extra_container_args=None)

Details of service creation.

Request to the orchestrator for a cluster of daemons such as MDS, RGW, iscsi gateway, MONs, MGRs, Prometheus

This structure is supposed to be enough information to start the services.

networks: List[str]

A list of network identities instructing the daemons to only bind on the particular networks in that list. In case the cluster is distributed across multiple networks, you can add multiple networks. See Networks and Ports, Specifying Networks and Specifying Networks.

placement: ceph.deployment.service_spec.PlacementSpec

See Daemon Placement.


The name of the service. Required for iscsi, mds, nfs, osd, rgw, container, ingress


The type of the service. Needs to be either a Ceph service (mon, crash, mds, mgr, osd or rbd-mirror), a gateway (nfs or rgw), part of the monitoring stack (alertmanager, grafana, node-exporter or prometheus) or (container) for custom containers.


If set to true, the orchestrator will not deploy nor remove any daemon associated with this service. Placement and all other properties will be ignored. This is useful, if you do not want this service to be managed temporarily. For cephadm, See Disabling automatic deployment of daemons

Each service type can have additional service-specific properties.

Service specifications of type mon, mgr, and the monitoring types do not require a service_id.

A service of type osd is described in Advanced OSD Service Specifications

Many service specifications can be applied at once using ceph orch apply -i by submitting a multi-document YAML file:

cat <<EOF | ceph orch apply -i -
service_type: mon
  host_pattern: "mon*"
service_type: mgr
  host_pattern: "mgr*"
service_type: osd
service_id: default_drive_group
  host_pattern: "osd*"
  all: true

Retrieving the running Service Specification

If the services have been started via ceph orch apply..., then directly changing the Services Specification is complicated. Instead of attempting to directly change the Services Specification, we suggest exporting the running Service Specification by following these instructions:

ceph orch ls --service-name rgw.<realm>.<zone> --export > rgw.<realm>.<zone>.yaml
ceph orch ls --service-type mgr --export > mgr.yaml
ceph orch ls --export > cluster.yaml

The Specification can then be changed and re-applied as above.

Updating Service Specifications

The Ceph Orchestrator maintains a declarative state of each service in a ServiceSpec. For certain operations, like updating the RGW HTTP port, we need to update the existing specification.

  1. List the current ServiceSpec:

    ceph orch ls --service_name=<service-name> --export > myservice.yaml
  2. Update the yaml file:

    vi myservice.yaml
  3. Apply the new ServiceSpec:

    ceph orch apply -i myservice.yaml [--dry-run]

Daemon Placement

For the orchestrator to deploy a service, it needs to know where to deploy daemons, and how many to deploy. This is the role of a placement specification. Placement specifications can either be passed as command line arguments or in a YAML files.


cephadm will not deploy daemons on hosts with the _no_schedule label; see Special host labels.


The apply command can be confusing. For this reason, we recommend using YAML specifications.

Each ceph orch apply <service-name> command supersedes the one before it. If you do not use the proper syntax, you will clobber your work as you go.

For example:

ceph orch apply mon host1
ceph orch apply mon host2
ceph orch apply mon host3

This results in only one host having a monitor applied to it: host 3.

(The first command creates a monitor on host1. Then the second command clobbers the monitor on host1 and creates a monitor on host2. Then the third command clobbers the monitor on host2 and creates a monitor on host3. In this scenario, at this point, there is a monitor ONLY on host3.)

To make certain that a monitor is applied to each of these three hosts, run a command like this:

ceph orch apply mon "host1,host2,host3"

There is another way to apply monitors to multiple hosts: a yaml file can be used. Instead of using the "ceph orch apply mon" commands, run a command of this form:

ceph orch apply -i file.yaml

Here is a sample file.yaml file

service_type: mon
   - host1
   - host2
   - host3

Explicit placements

Daemons can be explicitly placed on hosts by simply specifying them:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement="host1 host2 host3"

Or in YAML:

service_type: prometheus
    - host1
    - host2
    - host3

MONs and other services may require some enhanced network specifications:

ceph orch daemon add mon --placement="myhost:[v2:,v1:]=name"

where [v2:,v1:] is the network address of the monitor and =name specifies the name of the new monitor.

Placement by labels

Daemon placement can be limited to hosts that match a specific label. To set a label mylabel to the appropriate hosts, run this command:

ceph orch host label add *<hostname>* mylabel

To view the current hosts and labels, run this command:

ceph orch host ls

For example:

ceph orch host label add host1 mylabel
ceph orch host label add host2 mylabel
ceph orch host label add host3 mylabel
ceph orch host ls
host1         mylabel
host2         mylabel
host3         mylabel

Now, Tell cephadm to deploy daemons based on the label by running this command:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement="label:mylabel"

Or in YAML:

service_type: prometheus
  label: "mylabel"

Placement by pattern matching

Daemons can be placed on hosts as well:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement='myhost[1-3]'

Or in YAML:

service_type: prometheus
  host_pattern: "myhost[1-3]"

To place a service on all hosts, use "*":

ceph orch apply node-exporter --placement='*'

Or in YAML:

service_type: node-exporter
  host_pattern: "*"

Changing the number of daemons

By specifying count, only the number of daemons specified will be created:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement=3

To deploy daemons on a subset of hosts, specify the count:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement="2 host1 host2 host3"

If the count is bigger than the amount of hosts, cephadm deploys one per host:

ceph orch apply prometheus --placement="3 host1 host2"

The command immediately above results in two Prometheus daemons.

YAML can also be used to specify limits, in the following way:

service_type: prometheus
  count: 3

YAML can also be used to specify limits on hosts:

service_type: prometheus
  count: 2
    - host1
    - host2
    - host3

Co-location of daemons

Cephadm supports the deployment of multiple daemons on the same host:

service_type: rgw
  label: rgw
  count-per-host: 2

The main reason for deploying multiple daemons per host is an additional performance benefit for running multiple RGW and MDS daemons on the same host.

See also:

This feature was introduced in Pacific.

Algorithm description

Cephadm's declarative state consists of a list of service specifications containing placement specifications.

Cephadm continually compares a list of daemons actually running in the cluster against the list in the service specifications. Cephadm adds new daemons and removes old daemons as necessary in order to conform to the service specifications.

Cephadm does the following to maintain compliance with the service specifications.

Cephadm first selects a list of candidate hosts. Cephadm seeks explicit host names and selects them. If cephadm finds no explicit host names, it looks for label specifications. If no label is defined in the specification, cephadm selects hosts based on a host pattern. If no host pattern is defined, as a last resort, cephadm selects all known hosts as candidates.

Cephadm is aware of existing daemons running services and tries to avoid moving them.

Cephadm supports the deployment of a specific amount of services. Consider the following service specification:

service_type: mds
service_name: myfs
  count: 3
  label: myfs

This service specification instructs cephadm to deploy three daemons on hosts labeled myfs across the cluster.

If there are fewer than three daemons deployed on the candidate hosts, cephadm randomly chooses hosts on which to deploy new daemons.

If there are more than three daemons deployed on the candidate hosts, cephadm removes existing daemons.

Finally, cephadm removes daemons on hosts that are outside of the list of candidate hosts.


There is a special case that cephadm must consider.

If there are fewer hosts selected by the placement specification than demanded by count, cephadm will deploy only on the selected hosts.

Extra Container Arguments


The arguments provided for extra container args are limited to whatever arguments are available for a run command from whichever container engine you are using. Providing any arguments the run command does not support (or invalid values for arguments) will cause the daemon to fail to start.

Cephadm supports providing extra miscellaneous container arguments for specific cases when they may be necessary. For example, if a user needed to limit the amount of cpus their mon daemons make use of they could apply a spec like

service_type: mon
service_name: mon
    - host1
    - host2
    - host3
  -  "--cpus=2"

which would cause each mon daemon to be deployed with --cpus=2.

Removing a Service

In order to remove a service including the removal of all daemons of that service, run

ceph orch rm <service-name>

For example:

ceph orch rm rgw.myrgw

Disabling automatic deployment of daemons

Cephadm supports disabling the automated deployment and removal of daemons on a per service basis. The CLI supports two commands for this.

In order to fully remove a service, see Removing a Service.

Disabling automatic management of daemons

To disable the automatic management of dameons, set unmanaged=True in the Service Specification (mgr.yaml).


service_type: mgr
unmanaged: true
  label: mgr
ceph orch apply -i mgr.yaml


After you apply this change in the Service Specification, cephadm will no longer deploy any new daemons (even if the placement specification matches additional hosts).

Deploying a daemon on a host manually


This workflow has a very limited use case and should only be used in rare circumstances.

To manually deploy a daemon on a host, follow these steps:

Modify the service spec for a service by getting the existing spec, adding unmanaged: true, and applying the modified spec.

Then manually deploy the daemon using the following:

ceph orch daemon add <daemon-type>  --placement=<placement spec>

For example :

ceph orch daemon add mgr --placement=my_host


Removing unmanaged: true from the service spec will enable the reconciliation loop for this service and will potentially lead to the removal of the daemon, depending on the placement spec.

Removing a daemon from a host manually

To manually remove a daemon, run a command of the following form:

ceph orch daemon rm <daemon name>... [--force]

For example:

ceph orch daemon rm mgr.my_host.xyzxyz


For managed services (unmanaged=False), cephadm will automatically deploy a new daemon a few seconds later.

See also